Prophet Muhammad (Peace Be Upon Him & His Progeny)


Name: Muhammad (pbuh)
Parents: Abdullah bin Al-Muttalib & Amina bint Wahb
Kuniyya: Abul Qasim
Titles: As Sadiq, Al Amin
Birth: 17th Rabi ul Awwal 570 CE
Death: 28th Safar 11AH

“Say, (O Muhammad) If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and will forgive your sins; Indeed Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.” Suratu Aali Imran 3:31
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) was born in Makka on the 29th August 570 CE, Friday 17th Rabi ul Awwal. When he died at the age of 63 on 28th Safar, the whole of the Arabian Peninsula had changed from paganism and idol worship to the worship of One God; from tribal quarrels and wars to national solidarity and cohesion; from drunkenness and debauchery to sobriety and piety; from lawlessness and anarchy to disciplined living; from utter moral bankruptcy to the highest standards of moral excellence. Human history has never known such a complete transformation of a people or a place before or since.


Imam Ja'fer As-Sadiq (pbuh) has said that Allah created the light of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) before any of his creations. He was born in the year of the Elephant (570 CE) in the month of Rabi ul Awwal. It was just after sunrise on Friday the seventeenth.

Shaytan who had been previously allowed to visit the heavens suddenly found that he could not go. He went to the Ka'ba disguised as a little bird and saw angels celebrating. Jibrail saw him and recognised him. He was asked to leave but asked Jibrail to tell him what had happened. Jibrail told him that the last of the Prophets; Muhammad (pbuh) was born. Shaytan left weeping and wailing. It is said that he wept for forty days.

It is also said that all the idols fell on their faces and the palace of Kisra who was emperor of Persia started shaking and had cracks in it.

Abdul Muttalib saw a white cloud shadowing the house of Sayyida Amina (pbuh) and ran to inquire. He was told of the birth of Muhammad (pbuh)
Inspired by Allah, Abdul Muttalib named the child Muhammad. When asked why; he replied that he wished that Muhammad should be praised in the heavens and in the earth (Muhammad means one who is praiseworthy).

It is said that Sayyida Amina (pbuh) had named him Ahmed before Abdul Muttalib called him Muhammad.


His life can be divided into four stages
1. The first forty years from birth to be’that (when the first revelation of Qur’an was received)
2. Announcement of Prophethood and first 13 years in Makka.
3. After Hijra to Madina and 10 years there upto death
4. From wafat to Qiyama where he left behind the legacy of the Qur’an and the Ahlulbayt.


This period was spent preparing the grounds of declaration of Prophet hood. He had to be able to establish his credentials i.e. his excellent character. In fact he established that he was both Truthful (Sadiq) and Trustworthy (Amin). The people of Arabia although being a tribal community accepted him for his excellent Akhlaq.


He was born in Makka on the 17th Rabi ul Awwal in the Year of the Elephant.
His father Hazrat Abdullah had died before he was born and as was customary, he was sent to the countryside. The Prophet spent 5 years of his life in the desert among his wet nurse - Halima's people (tribe of Bani Sa'd). During this time Halima took him to visit his mother twice or thrice and then eventually returned him to her.
Sayyida Amina decided that she would take the Prophet to visit the grave of his father Hazrat Abdullah in Yathrib. With Umme Ayman they went and on the way back to Makka, Sayyida Amina died at a place called Abwa where she is buried. He was then looked after by his grandfather Abdul Muttalib who then died a few years later and this hurt the Prophet (pbuh) greatly.
All these tragedies in his younger life prepared him for the hardships to come.


Abu Talib took the guardianship of the Prophet after Abdul Muttalib. (He was Abdullah's brother and Imam Ali's father).
He showed his bravery, and strength in the battles of Fujjar (unjust battles).
He showed his justice and leadership in the Covenant of the Youths (Hilful Fuzul). This was drawn to ensure the welfare of the oppressed.

He worked as a shepherd for the people of Makka

Abu Talib took him when he went to trade in Syria and Yemen and his skills were noted by all.

Sayyida Khadija on hearing of his trade skills employed the Prophet to accompany her trade caravans as her manager. The first trip proved more successful than any other that Sayyida Khadija had known.

She asked her friend Nafisa to ask the Prophet whether he would marry her. He agreed and they were married in 595 CE. They were very happy and had two sons - Qasim & Abdullah (also called Tayyib & Tahir) - both of whom died in infancy and one daughter, Sayyida Fatima Zahra (pbuh)

Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) used to spend a lot of time in the cave of Hira on the mountain of light meditating and praying.


As soon as the Prophet (pbuh) announced that there are no gods but Allah, he was rejected and persecuted by the Quraysh. He remained the same person - with the excellent akhlaq but what had changed is that he declared his belief in Allah.


When he was forty he got the first revelations in the cave Hira on the mountain of Light where he used to meditate. It was brought by angel Jibrail and it was the first five ayaat ofSuratul Alaq (96)

"Read in the name of your Lord who created (all); He created man from a clot of blood;
Read! Your Lord is the most bountiful,
Who by the pen taught man what he did not know".

It was the 27th of Rajab (The day of Be’that) in the 40th year of the life of the Prophet. He was busy in remembrance of Allah in his usual place in the cave of Hira.

The first person who the Prophet told of this was his wife, Sayyida Khadija. She immediately testified to his Prophet hood and gave him her full support.

The Prophet began the preaching of his mission to a limited circle for the first three years. Then he was asked by Allah to invite his near relations to Islam. "And warn your nearest relatives.” (Suratush Shu'ara 26:214)

The Prophet (pbuh) arranged a meal inviting 40 of his relations. This is known as 'Da'watul Dhul Ashira'. He invited them towards Allah and introduced himself as the Messenger of Allah. He then asked three times: "Which one of you will support me so that he may become my brother, wasi and successor after me?"

Each time Imam Ali (pbuh) who was 13 years old at the time stood up and said: "O Prophet of Allah! I am prepared to support you!"
The Prophet (pbuh) held Imam Ali's (pbuh) hand high and told his audience that Ali (pbuh) would be his successor and they should listen to him and follow him. The others who were present taunted Abu Talib saying he would now have to take orders from his son. The meeting ended.

After this he began preaching openly to the Quraysh who reacted violently. The Prophet and his followers were constantly harassed. The Prophet was not allowed to worship in the Ka'ba. Thorns were strewn in his path, dirt and filth were thrown at him, he was accused of being a madman, magician and poet and was taunted and insulted.

His faithful companions too were tortured. Some were placed on the hot sands and heavy stones were put on their chests, nooses were put round their necks and they were dragged in the streets. The first martyr of Islam was Sumayya, the mother of one of the companions of the Prophet, Ammar Yasir.

The Prophet had about 100 followers and physical cruelty made life unbearable in Makka. The Prophet advised his followers to got to Abyssinia under the leadership of Jaffer Tayyar. This was the first Hijra in Islam (in the fifth year of Prophet hood) and 15 people took part in it. The Prophet then advised a second Hijra.

When the Quraysh found out that the Muslims were living peacefully in Abyssinia, they sent expensive gifts to the ministers of the King of Abyssinia to bribe them. Then they sent their representative Amr Al-Aas who visited King Najashi (of Abyssinia) asking for the return of the Muslims claiming that they had invented a new religion. The ministers loudly supported the request.

King Najashi asked whether the Muslims had killed anyone, stolen property or committed any crimes. Amr replied that their only crime was the invention of a new religion. King Najashi called Ja'fer bin Abu Talib to the court and asked him why the Muslims had abandoned the religion of their forefathers and started a new religion.

King Najashi was impressed with what Ja'fer said and asked him to recite some ayaat from the Qur'an. Ja'fer recited ayaat from Suratu Maryam which moved the King and his ministers.

Frustrated that they could not overcome the Prophet, the Quraysh boycotted the families of Hashim and Muttalib, having no contact with them nor allowing food or drink to reach to them.

Abu Talib had no choice but to take them to a valley belonging to him called Shib-e-Abu Talib. For three long years from Muharram in the 7th year after declaration of Prophet hood they stayed there under so much hardship that at times they lived on leaves and grass.

They came out when the Prophet told Abu Talib that the agreement signed by all the Quraysh to boycott them had been eaten up by insects and only the words "In the name of our Lord..." remained. Abu Talib went and told this to the Quraysh who found it to be true and had no choice but to stop their boycott.

Shortly after, Abu Talib and Sayyida Khadija both died and this grieved the Prophet so much that he called the year Aamul Huzn (The year of grief).

After the death of Abu Talib and Sayyida Khadija the persecution against the Prophet by the Makkans increased and he decided to go to Taif hoping the people there might listen. But there he was laughed at and driven away. Grieved he returned to Makka.
The news of the preaching of the Prophet had spread and a group of about 20 Christians from Najaran came to Makka and accepted Islam. Another group of 6 people came from Yathrib (Madina) and accepted Islam. This was in the 11th year after the declaration of Prophet hood.

The next year 12 people from Yathrib came and took a pledge (promise) known as the First Pledge Of Aqaba (Aqaba means mountain pass and the pledge was taken in a mountain pass outside Makka). The pledge was besides other things not to associate anything with Allah and obey the Prophet in everything. They returned to Yathrib (Madina) and wrote to the Prophet asking him to send someone to Madina to teach them Islam. The Prophet (pbuh) sent Mus'ab bin Umayr and Ibn Umme Maqtum to do tableegh.


"Glory be to Him who made His servant go by night from Masjidul Haram to Masjidul Aqsa (the furthest mosque), whose surroundings We have blessed that We might show him some of our signs. He is all Hearing and all Seeing" Suratu Bani Israel 17:1

In the 12th year of Prophet hood Allah honoured the Prophet with a visit to the heavens. It was the night of the 27th of Rajab, and the Prophet was at the house of Umme Haani binte Abu Talib. Jibrail came and told him that he was to accompany him on a unique journey on an animal called Buraq.

The Prophet first went to the Ka'ba from where he was taken on Buraq to see Madina (where he was to live), Mount Sinai (where Allah spoke to Musa (pbuh)), Bethlehem (where Isa (pbuh) was born) and then to Baytul Muqaddas (Jerusalem) where the Prophet led prayers for a lot of other Prophets.

He was then taken to the heavens. The Masjidul Aqsa (furthest mosque) mentioned in the above Qur'anic aya is the mosque in the heavens which is directly above the Ka'ba.

He saw the solar system and talked to the souls of the other Prophets, he saw the places of blessing and punishment and continued until he reached Sidratul Muntaha' (a tree in Janna). Jibrail said then that he could not step further then this. Sidratul Muntaha is said to be the symbol marking the last limit of heavenly knowledge beyond which no one could pass.

On his return from the journey the Prophet passed a caravan of people who had lost their camel and were looking for it. The Prophet described the caravan exactly and it was the same one which entered Makka a little while later.


The tableegh of the two people sent by the Prophet to Yathrib was so effective that in the same year 70 people came to Makka from Yathrib including the 12 who took the first pledge and all accepted Islam and invited the prophet to Yathrib. This pledge is called the Second Pledge of Aqaba.

When the Makkans found out that Islam was spreading in Yathrib they were very angry. They planned to kill the Prophet by choosing one person from each tribe to attack him collectively so no one person or tribe could be blamed.

The Prophet came to know of this and was commanded by Allah to leave for Yathrib. He left Imam Ali (pbuh) sleeping in his bed (when Imam Ali (pbuh) found out he was to be the ransom for the Prophet's life he did a sijda of shukr. It is the first one in Islam). The Prophet walked out of the house whilst his attackers were there without being noticed by throwing towards them a handful of dust on which the following aya of the Qur'an had been recited.

"And We have made before them a barrier and a barrier behind them, then We have covered them over so they do not see." Suratu Yaseen 36:9

The Prophet went to the Mountain of Thaur (about 5 miles from Makka) accompanied by Abu Bakr.

When at dawn the attackers entered the Prophet's house they were shocked and furious at finding Imam Ali (pbuh) in the Prophet's bed.
Immediately they started looking for the Prophet and came right up to the mouth of the cave in which he was hiding. They did not look in because a spider had woven its cobweb round the entrance and a pair of pigeons had built their nest right at the mouth of the cave and neither was the web broken nor the eggs disturbed.

They left Makka on the 1st night of Rabi ul Awwal reaching the cave of Thaur before dawn; remaining there until the 4th of Rabi ul Awwal and then leaving for Yathrib. They reached Quba (2 miles south of Yathrib) on the 8th or 12th of Rabi ul Awwal.

At Quba the Prophet laid the foundation stone for the Mosque of Quba which has been mentioned in the Qur'an as the first mosque founded on piety.

They entered the city of Yathrib on Friday the 16th of Rabi ul Awwal (2nd of July 622 C.E.). This was the date from which dates the Islamic year.


Change of name of Yathrib

The name of the city was changed to Madinatun Nabi, the city of the Prophet. Now, it is generally known as Madinatul Munawwara (The lighted city) or simply Madina.

Building of the Masjid

On arrival, a masjid was constructed at the place the Prophet's camel stopped and let the Prophet (pbuh) descend. The land belonged to two orphans from whom the Prophet (pbuh) bought the land for 10 dinars. The construction of the masjid was shared between the Muslims. Even the Prophet (pbuh) had his share of work. It was built with clay bricks and mud, with the trunks of palm trees as pillars and a roof of palm leaves. Adjoining rooms were built on one side for the Prophet (pbuh) and his family and on the other side rooms for the homeless.

Brotherhood between Ansars & Muhajirs

The Prophet established brotherhood between the Ansars (people of Madina) and Muhajirs (immigrants from Makka). The Ansars volunteered to share half of everything they had with their Muhajir brothers.
"Those who believed and migrated and strive in the cause of God with their persons and belongings and those who sheltered and helped them; they are indeed brothers to one another" Suratul Anfaal 8:72

By this method the Prophet ensured unity of the Muslims.
The Quraysh were very angry about the establishing of Islam in Madina and the Prophets' emigration there. They gathered to attack the Muslims and several battles and skirmishes occurred around Madina.

Change of Qibla

When the order of salaa was first revealed, the qibla was Baytul Muqaddas in Jeruselam. This was the practise in Makka and continued for 17 months after hijra. One day when the Prophet was leading salaa, he was ordered to change qibla to the Ka'ba after completing two rakaats of the Dhuhr salaa. He at once changed direction without the need of a compass. The masjid where the order came is called Masjid Dhul Qiblatayn (The masjid with two qiblas).

"Many a time We have seen you turn your face towards the heavens. We will make you turntowards a qibla that will please you........”Suratul Baqara 2:144


Since the time when Prophet Ibrahim (pbuh) had built the Holy Ka'ba, it had been a place of worship. Over the years, this worship had deteriorated into strange and undesirable practices. People used to dance naked around the Holy Ka'ba, and they had put idols inside it.

Even after the conquest of Makka when these idols were broken, the people did not know how to perform the Hajj ceremonies properly. The Prophet (pbuh) therefore performed Hajj in 10 AH, so that the people would remain in no doubt as to how it should be done.

He could also instruct the people about the boundaries of Mina and Arafaat and teach them about the times of departure from these places.

In Dhulqa’da he announced that he was going to perform the Hajj that year.
Thousands gathered outside Madina awaiting the departure of the Prophet (pbuh).
The Prophet (pbuh) appointed Abu Dajana as his representative in Madina and proceeded toward Makka taking with him 60 animals for sacrifice.

At Zil Hulayfa, in the mosque of Shajara, he put on his Ihram.

At Arafat, the Prophet (pbuh) whilst mounted on his camel delivered his famous and historical speech to the thousands of people who had gathered. He addressed the people and went through a summary of his teachings to them. He repeated all the major and minor elements of Islamic principles so that there could be no doubt left in their minds. When he finished he offered his noon and afternoon prayers with 100,000 men.

The Prophet (pbuh) then completed the Hajj

This Hajj is known as Hajjatul Wida (the Farewell Hajj) because it was the last Hajj that the Prophet (pbuh) performed in his life. During this Hajj he demonstrated every feature of the ceremony, so that there could be no confusion later.

On Thursday 18th Dhulhijja 10 AH the returning caravan of Hajis reached Johfa. On it’sborders is a pond (called Ghadeer in Arabic). The place is called Ghadeer Khum because ofit’s location.

Jibrail brought a message for the Prophet (pbuh):
“O Prophet! Deliver what has been revealed to you from Your Lord, and if you do not thenyou have not delivered His message and Allah will protect you from the people; Indeed Allahdoes not guide the unbelieving people.”

Suratul Ma’ida - 5:68

It was terribly hot; the Prophet (pbuh) gave instructions for making a pulpit (mimbar) so he could deliver the message of the Lord.
A pulpit of saddles was hastily made and Bilal gave the Adhan (call to prayers).
After prayers he stood on the pulpit and delivered the following sermon;

"All glory is exclusively for Allah. We seek his help and have faith in him and rely on him. We seek refuge in him from our evil doings and indecent deeds. He is the Lord besides whom there is no guide. There will be none to mislead one whom he guides.
I testify that there is no God but Allah and Muhammed is his servant and his messenger. O people! I may soon accept the divine invitation and depart from amongst you.

I am responsible and you too are responsible. What is your opinion about me?”

At this stage those present said loudly: "We testify that you have carried out your mission and made efforts in this behalf. May Allah reward you for this?"

The Prophet (pbuh) continued: "Do you testify that the Lord of the world is one and Muhammed is his servant and messenger and that there is no doubt about life in the other world?”

All the people said: "It is correct and we testify it!”

Then the Prophet (pbuh) said: "O my followers! I am leaving behind two heavy (valuable) things as legacies to you and it is to be seen how you behave with these two legacies of mine."

At this moment a person stood up and said with a loud voice: "What do you mean by these two valuable things?”

To this the Prophet (pbuh) replied: "One of them is the book of Allah and the other thing is my progeny ; my Ahlulbayt. Allah has informed me that these two things will not get separated from each other. "O People!don’t seek precedence over the Qur'an and over my progeny, and do not be negligent in your behaviour towards them, lest you be destroyed."

At this moment he took Imam Ali's hand and raised it so high that the whiteness of both of their armpits was seen. He introduced Imam Ali (pbuh) to the people and said: “Who enjoys more rights over the believers than themselves?"

All of them said: "Allah and His Prophet (pbuh) know better".

Then the Prophet (pbuh) said: "Allah is my mawla (master) and I am the mawla of the believers and I am more deserving and enjoy more rights over them then they themselves."

"O people! Of whomsoever I am mawla, this Ali is also his/her mawla."

Then he raised his hands for dua: "O Allah! Love those who love Ali, and be the enemy of those who are the enemies of Ali. O Allah, help Ali's friends and humiliate his enemies and make him the pivot (centre) of truth."

Just then Jibrail appeared and brought the following revelation: "This day I have perfected your religion for you and completed my favours to you and have chosen Islam as your religion....." (Suratul Ma'ida 5:3)

At this moment the Prophet (pbuh) pronounced takbeer loudly and then added: "I thank Allah for having perfected His religion and for having completed His favour and for His having been pleased with the master ship and succession of Ali after me."

Then the Prophet (pbuh) stepped down from the pulpit and said to Imam Ali (pbuh): "Sit in a tent so that the chiefs and distinguished personalities of Islam may shake hands with you and congratulate you."

The two shaykhs (Abu Bakr & Umar) were the first to congratulate Imam Ali (pbuh) and call him their mawla.


A month after the Prophet (pbuh) returned from the farewell Hajj, he fell ill.

As the health of the Prophet (pbuh) worsened, Sayyida Fatima (pbuh) became very sad. The Prophet (pbuh) asked her not to be sad and whispered something in her ear that made her smile. When she was asked about it later, Sayyida Fatima (pbuh) said that her father had told her not to be sad because she would be the first to join him in the hereafter.

Three days before he died he asked for a paper, pen and ink so he could write some advice for the Muslims so that they would always stay on the right path.
One of his companions, Umar who was there refused to give him what he had asked for saying that the Qur'an was enough and that the Prophet (pbuh) was sick and did not know what he was saying. The Prophet (pbuh) got angry and sent him away.

During the last moments of his life, the Prophet (pbuh) opened his eyes and asked for his brother to be called. Ayesha called her father Abu Bakr, but when the Prophet (pbuh) saw him he placed his head back on his pillow and repeated that his brother should be called for. Hafsa, another wife of the Prophet (pbuh) called her father Umar, but the same thing happened.

Ayesha then sent for Imam Ali (pbuh) saying that the Prophet (pbuh) would see no one else. When Imam Ali (pbuh) arrived, the Prophet (pbuh) raised his cloak and took him under its cover. He then placed his head on the chest of Imam Ali (pbuh) and talked to him for a long time.

Just then there was a knock on the door. Sayyida Fatima (pbuh) told the caller to come later, as her father was very ill. However, the caller was insistent and kept on knocking.
Tears welled up in Sayyida Fatima's (pbuh) eyes, but her father said to her:
"O Fatima, let him in. For it is none other than the Angel of Death. It is only out of respect of your presence that he is asking for permission to enter, otherwise he waits for nobody when he comes to take away the soul."

Soon afterwards the signs of death began to appear on the Prophet’s (pbuh) face. His last words were: “Salaa! Salaa!”

It was Monday 28th Safar 11 AH. He was 63 years old.

Imam Ali (pbuh) gave him ghusl and kafan. He is buried in his house in Madina which adjoins the mosque.