After this he began preaching openly to the Quraysh who reacted violently. The Prophet and his followers were constantly harassed. The Prophet was not allowed to worship in the Ka'ba. Thorns were strewn in his path, dirt and filth were thrown at him, he was accused of being a madman, magician and poet and was taunted and insulted.
His faithful companions too were tortured. Some were placed on the hot sands and heavy stones were put on their chests, nooses were put round their necks and they were dragged in the streets. The first martyr of Islam was Sumayya, the mother of one of the companions of the Prophet, Ammar Yasir.
The Prophet had about 100 followers and physical cruelty made life unbearable in Makka. The Prophet advised his followers to got to Abyssinia under the leadership of Jaffer Tayyar. This was the first Hijra in Islam (in the fifth year of Prophet hood) and 15 people took part in it. The Prophet then advised a second Hijra.
When the Quraysh found out that the Muslims were living peacefully in Abyssinia, they sent expensive gifts to the ministers of the King of Abyssinia to bribe them. Then they sent their representative Amr Al-Aas who visited King Najashi (of Abyssinia) asking for the return of the Muslims claiming that they had invented a new religion. The ministers loudly supported the request.
King Najashi asked whether the Muslims had killed anyone, stolen property or committed any crimes. Amr replied that their only crime was the invention of a new religion. King Najashi called Ja'fer bin Abu Talib to the court and asked him why the Muslims had abandoned the religion of their forefathers and started a new religion.
King Najashi was impressed with what Ja'fer said and asked him to recite some ayaat from the Qur'an. Ja'fer recited ayaat from Suratu Maryam which moved the King and his ministers.
Frustrated that they could not overcome the Prophet, the Quraysh boycotted the families of Hashim and Muttalib, having no contact with them nor allowing food or drink to reach to them.
Abu Talib had no choice but to take them to a valley belonging to him called Shib-e-Abu Talib. For three long years from Muharram in the 7th year after declaration of Prophet hood they stayed there under so much hardship that at times they lived on leaves and grass.
They came out when the Prophet told Abu Talib that the agreement signed by all the Quraysh to boycott them had been eaten up by insects and only the words "In the name of our Lord..." remained. Abu Talib went and told this to the Quraysh who found it to be true and had no choice but to stop their boycott.
Shortly after, Abu Talib and Sayyida Khadija both died and this grieved the Prophet so much that he called the year Aamul Huzn (The year of grief).
After the death of Abu Talib and Sayyida Khadija the persecution against the Prophet by the Makkans increased and he decided to go to Taif hoping the people there might listen. But there he was laughed at and driven away. Grieved he returned to Makka.
The news of the preaching of the Prophet had spread and a group of about 20 Christians from Najaran came to Makka and accepted Islam. Another group of 6 people came from Yathrib (Madina) and accepted Islam. This was in the 11th year after the declaration of Prophet hood.
The next year 12 people from Yathrib came and took a pledge (promise) known as the First Pledge Of Aqaba (Aqaba means mountain pass and the pledge was taken in a mountain pass outside Makka). The pledge was besides other things not to associate anything with Allah and obey the Prophet in everything. They returned to Yathrib (Madina) and wrote to the Prophet asking him to send someone to Madina to teach them Islam. The Prophet (pbuh) sent Mus'ab bin Umayr and Ibn Umme Maqtum to do tableegh.
"Glory be to Him who made His servant go by night from Masjidul Haram to Masjidul Aqsa (the furthest mosque), whose surroundings We have blessed that We might show him some of our signs. He is all Hearing and all Seeing" Suratu Bani Israel 17:1
In the 12th year of Prophet hood Allah honoured the Prophet with a visit to the heavens. It was the night of the 27th of Rajab, and the Prophet was at the house of Umme Haani binte Abu Talib. Jibrail came and told him that he was to accompany him on a unique journey on an animal called Buraq.
The Prophet first went to the Ka'ba from where he was taken on Buraq to see Madina (where he was to live), Mount Sinai (where Allah spoke to Musa (pbuh)), Bethlehem (where Isa (pbuh) was born) and then to Baytul Muqaddas (Jerusalem) where the Prophet led prayers for a lot of other Prophets.
He was then taken to the heavens. The Masjidul Aqsa (furthest mosque) mentioned in the above Qur'anic aya is the mosque in the heavens which is directly above the Ka'ba.
He saw the solar system and talked to the souls of the other Prophets, he saw the places of blessing and punishment and continued until he reached Sidratul Muntaha' (a tree in Janna). Jibrail said then that he could not step further then this. Sidratul Muntaha is said to be the symbol marking the last limit of heavenly knowledge beyond which no one could pass.
On his return from the journey the Prophet passed a caravan of people who had lost their camel and were looking for it. The Prophet described the caravan exactly and it was the same one which entered Makka a little while later.
The tableegh of the two people sent by the Prophet to Yathrib was so effective that in the same year 70 people came to Makka from Yathrib including the 12 who took the first pledge and all accepted Islam and invited the prophet to Yathrib. This pledge is called the Second Pledge of Aqaba.
When the Makkans found out that Islam was spreading in Yathrib they were very angry. They planned to kill the Prophet by choosing one person from each tribe to attack him collectively so no one person or tribe could be blamed.
The Prophet came to know of this and was commanded by Allah to leave for Yathrib. He left Imam Ali (pbuh) sleeping in his bed (when Imam Ali (pbuh) found out he was to be the ransom for the Prophet's life he did a sijda of shukr. It is the first one in Islam). The Prophet walked out of the house whilst his attackers were there without being noticed by throwing towards them a handful of dust on which the following aya of the Qur'an had been recited.
"And We have made before them a barrier and a barrier behind them, then We have covered them over so they do not see." Suratu Yaseen 36:9
The Prophet went to the Mountain of Thaur (about 5 miles from Makka) accompanied by Abu Bakr.
When at dawn the attackers entered the Prophet's house they were shocked and furious at finding Imam Ali (pbuh) in the Prophet's bed.
Immediately they started looking for the Prophet and came right up to the mouth of the cave in which he was hiding. They did not look in because a spider had woven its cobweb round the entrance and a pair of pigeons had built their nest right at the mouth of the cave and neither was the web broken nor the eggs disturbed.
They left Makka on the 1st night of Rabi ul Awwal reaching the cave of Thaur before dawn; remaining there until the 4th of Rabi ul Awwal and then leaving for Yathrib. They reached Quba (2 miles south of Yathrib) on the 8th or 12th of Rabi ul Awwal.
At Quba the Prophet laid the foundation stone for the Mosque of Quba which has been mentioned in the Qur'an as the first mosque founded on piety.
They entered the city of Yathrib on Friday the 16th of Rabi ul Awwal (2nd of July 622 C.E.). This was the date from which dates the Islamic year.
HIJRA AND 10 YEARS THEREAFTER TO WAFAT 1-11AH (622 – 632 CE)
Change of name of Yathrib
The name of the city was changed to Madinatun Nabi, the city of the Prophet. Now, it is generally known as Madinatul Munawwara (The lighted city) or simply Madina.
Building of the Masjid
On arrival, a masjid was constructed at the place the Prophet's camel stopped and let the Prophet (pbuh) descend. The land belonged to two orphans from whom the Prophet (pbuh) bought the land for 10 dinars. The construction of the masjid was shared between the Muslims. Even the Prophet (pbuh) had his share of work. It was built with clay bricks and mud, with the trunks of palm trees as pillars and a roof of palm leaves. Adjoining rooms were built on one side for the Prophet (pbuh) and his family and on the other side rooms for the homeless.
Brotherhood between Ansars & Muhajirs
The Prophet established brotherhood between the Ansars (people of Madina) and Muhajirs (immigrants from Makka). The Ansars volunteered to share half of everything they had with their Muhajir brothers.
"Those who believed and migrated and strive in the cause of God with their persons and belongings and those who sheltered and helped them; they are indeed brothers to one another" Suratul Anfaal 8:72
By this method the Prophet ensured unity of the Muslims.
The Quraysh were very angry about the establishing of Islam in Madina and the Prophets' emigration there. They gathered to attack the Muslims and several battles and skirmishes occurred around Madina.
Change of Qibla
When the order of salaa was first revealed, the qibla was Baytul Muqaddas in Jeruselam. This was the practise in Makka and continued for 17 months after hijra. One day when the Prophet was leading salaa, he was ordered to change qibla to the Ka'ba after completing two rakaats of the Dhuhr salaa. He at once changed direction without the need of a compass. The masjid where the order came is called Masjid Dhul Qiblatayn (The masjid with two qiblas).
"Many a time We have seen you turn your face towards the heavens. We will make you turntowards a qibla that will please you........”Suratul Baqara 2:144